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News article19 December 2022Joint Research Centre

Winter crops generally faring well

Cold start to winter improved frost tolerance rather than causing damage, according to the December issue of the JRC MARS Bulletin - Crop monitoring in Europe.

Hardening index

Temperatures presented a significant drop in the first half of December, after an exceptionally warm autumn, especially in the western half of Europe. Model simulations up to 15 December suggest only minor frost damage to winter crops, limited to some areas in central and eastern Germany and Poland. Conversely, the low temperatures in December allowed a significant improvement of the level of frost tolerance (hardening).

Little negative impacts of extreme weather to winter crops so far

Distinctly warmer-than-usual temperatures continued to prevail in the western and southern Black Sea region, thus allowing late-sown winter crops to partly catch up in development; however, leaving them vulnerable to possible cold intrusions (currently not forecast).

Persistent rain deficits, so far without substantial impacts on winter cereals, are observed in the Baltic Sea region, northern Germany and Poland, as well as in south-eastern Spain and in Türkiye. Drought conditions are still observed in north-western Italy, and throughout the Maghreb region where it is likely to cause a delay to sowing.

Rainfall surplus is observed in Slovenija and Croatia where intense rains may have locally compromised crop establishment.

Ares of concern - extreme weather events

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The survey will be available until the end of the year, at 2022 JRC MARS Bulletin  - Crop Monitoring  in Europe Survey

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Further information

JRC MARS (Monitoring Agricultural Resources) Bulletins


The latest information about global agricultural production hotspots for countries at risk of food insecurity is available on the JRC’s ASAP (Anomaly hot Spots of Agricultural Production) site.


Publication date
19 December 2022
Joint Research Centre
JRC portfolios
Sustainable food systems