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Openness in research implies a paradigm shift in the modus operandi of research and science which affects the entire scientific process. The underlying idea is to advance science as quickly and as well as possible by sharing and collaborating, rather than trying to publish first in order to secure intellectual property rights.

International collaboration, for example, plays an increasingly important role both in improving the competitiveness of research and innovation systems and in fostering new knowledge production worldwide (Research and Innovation, European Commission, 2016)

Open access

Is the practice of providing online access to scientific information that is free of charge to the end-user.

Open Research

Collaboration is the large–scale, remote collaboration between scientists through the use of internet-based tools similar to open source software collaboration. It can take place regionally, nationally or internationally.

Open data

Is data that can be used free of charge, reused and redistributed, subject only to the requirements of its open license.

Citizens' science

is a form of research collaboration in which professional scientists engage with members of the public, who then contribute to the research.

Source: OpenEdu Framework (2016)