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Summary of Key Findings

Without mitigation and adaptation measures, annual damage from coastal flooding in the EU and UK could increase sharply from 1.4 €billion nowadays to almost 240 €billion by 2100.

Around 95% of these impacts could be avoided through moderate mitigation and by raising dykes where human settlements and economically important areas exist along the coastline. The extent to which adaptation can lessen the effects of coastal flooding and at what cost is sensitive to the investment strategy adopted.


Figure: Annual damage and population exposed to coastal flooding for the EU and UK in present and by 2100 under two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, with and without adaptation respectively. For adaptation, dykes are raised to a level of protection that maximises their economic benefit.

Summary Card

Peseta IV Coastal Floods Summary Card First Page

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Sector report


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Final report


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