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Economic, environmental and social effects of globalisation

EU Exports to the world: effects on employment. Edition 2021. Interactive map

View all data per country on the interactive map

 

View all data per country on the interactive map

 

The JRC and DG TRADE collaborated to produce a third study aiming to be a valuable tool for trade policymakers: EU exports to the world: effects on employment (2021).

This infographic complements the information presented in the new report: “EU exports to the world: effects on employment – Edition 2021” allowing for browsing across the results in a user-friendly manner. The report illustrates in detail the relationship between trade and employment for the EU as a whole and for each EU Member State, using the World Input-Output Database (release 2016). Furthermore, the analysis will complement this information with detailed data on employment by industry, skill, age and gender using other complementary employment statistics. All indicators relate to EU exports to the rest of the world to reflect the scope of EU external trade policymaking.

All indicators are available from 2000 until 2019 (or from 2008 to 2019 for age, gender and education level). The geographical breakdown of the data includes the 27 EU Member States, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Norway, Russia, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States of America, and an aggregate “Rest of the World” region.

EU Exports to the world: effects on employment. Edition 2021. Report

 
cover_pocketbook2021.jpg
© European Commission

 

Report

Trade is at the centre of Europe’s model of economic prosperity and competitiveness. As stated in the new Trade Policy Strategy set out by the European Commission (2021), the European Union puts the focus on open strategic autonomy, building on open trade and cooperation to defend EU interests and values.

One of the headline actions is to support an informed discussion on trade policy by inter-alia conducting analytical work on the impact of trade policies on employment. Against this background, the Directorate General for TRADE (DG TRADE) and the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) have prepared a new updated version of two published studies in 2015 and 2018, where this time the EU figures correspond to 27 Member States (excluding United Kingdom) and projections have been included for 2019.

This report illustrates in detail the relationship between trade and employment for the EU as a whole and for each EU Member State, using the World Input-Output Database (release 2016). Furthermore, the analysis will complement this information with detailed data on employment by industry, skill, age and gender using other complementary employment statistics. All indicators relate to EU exports to the rest of the world to reflect the scope of EU external trade policymaking.

All indicators are available from 2000 until 2019 (or from 2008 to 2019 for age, gender and education level). The geographical breakdown of the data includes the 27 EU Member States, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Norway, Russia, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States of America, and an aggregate “Rest of the World” region.

The information presented in this pocketbook is complemented with an online interactive map providing extra visualisations for the EU and its Member States. This infographics complements the information presented in the new report: “EU exports to the World: Effects on Employment – Edition 2021” allowing for browsing across the results in a user-friendly manner.

Trade-SCAN v2

 
Cover Trade-Scan v2
Cover Trade-Scan v2

 

Manual

The European Commission's Joint Research Centre has developed, with BC3 - Basque Centre for Climate Change Research - and the University of Groningen, a new version of the user-friendly computer tool called Trade Supply Chain Analysis (Trade-SCAN), now open to users outside of the European Commission.

Trade-SCAN v2 allows to quickly and easily disentangle (without coding, but using a graphical user interface) the factors embodied in trade (i.e. VAiT) and trade in factors (i.e. TiVA, footprints) with MRIO databases (OECD ICIO, WIOD and EXIOBASE). The users can control the industries and countries in each step of the value chain and summarize according to their needs the results on the impacts on value added, employment, emissions and subcategories of each of them (labour/capital compensation, skills/age groups, different gasses, etc.). This makes calculating, for instance, tailored footprints or domestic/foreign value added and double counted components of bilateral gross exports easier than ever before.

The objective of this tool is to facilitate the GVC analysis, allowing the user to focus on the research questions and the analysis of the results instead of on the coding of the IO model, which often exhausts most of the time. This allows non-specialists on IO to quickly access IO analysis results and therefore expand the field of influence of IO analysis, as it introduces these non-experts to the topic. That is why the tool can be used not only for research but also for teaching and policy advice where reactiveness is critical.

The tool has three separate modules:

  • Ad-hoc; to generate ad-hoc queries and get the results on spot to answer your specific queries not covered by the general results of the next two modules,
  • Pocketbook; it provides the (time extended) downloadable tables and charts of five JRC publications on GVC,
  • Dashboard; to view and download ad-hoc visualizations for a selection of 10 indicators.

European Commission’s users can access the servers hosting Trade-SCAN by requesting access. External users can run it in their own computer if holding an active GAMS license. For this, they need to install the application and download the databases that they want to use in the Ad-hoc module OECD (45 Gb), WIOD (45 Gb), EXIOBASE (450 Gb). For questions or training, contact us.

EU TiVA: effects on employment, income and CO2 emissions (2020)

 
employment2020.jpg

 

 
valueadded2020.jpg

 

 
EU CO2 Emissions 2020

 

   

Employment

Income

CO2

The JRC provides scientific evidence-based policy support to the European Commission by analysing the number of jobs supported by EU Final Demand (by industry, skills, gender and age), their corresponding embodied value added and CO2 emissions. To fully understand how trade flows affect employment and income, gathering comprehensive, reliable and comparable information is crucial to support evidence-based policymaking.

Guided by this objective, the JRC has continued producing a new study in three volumes:

  • EU Trade on Employment
  • EU Trade in Value Added
  • EU Trade in CO2 Emission

These reports aim to be a valuable tool for policymakers.

These reports feature a series of indicators to illustrate in detail the relationship among demand, trade, employment, income generation and emissions responsibility for the EU as a whole and for each EU Member State using the World Input-Output Database (WIOD), 2016 release, as the main data source. This information has been complemented with data on employment by age, skill and gender from other sources such as EUKLEMS. All the indicators relate to the EU demand from domestic producers, from other EU countries and from the rest of the world so as to reflect the scope of EU policy making.

Most indicators are available as of 2000 but, due to data constraints, the indicators on employment split by skill, gender and age are only available from 2008 to 2014. The geographical breakdown of the data includes the 28 EU Member States, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Norway, Russia, South Korea, Switzerland, Turkey, Taiwan, the United States of America, and an aggregate “Rest of the World” region.

The information presented in this pocketbook is complemented with an electronic version with extra downloadable data and visualisations together with country fiches for the EU and its member states (Trade-SCAN v2).

 

Environmental Accounts WIOD 2016 Release

The tables below provide the environmental accounts consistent with the World Input Output Database Release 2016, including gross energy use, emission relevant energy use and CO2 emissions by 64 sectors and by households, for 12 energy commodities. The database covers 28 EU countries and 13 other major countries in the world for the period 2000 to 2016.

When using this database, a reference should be made to the following report containing an overview of the sources and characteristics of this new release:

Corsatea T.D., Lindner S., Arto, I., Román, M.V., Rueda-Cantuche J.M., Velázquez Afonso A., Amores A.F., Neuwahl F.; World Input-Output Database Environmental Accounts. Update 2000-2016, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2019, ISBN 978-92-79-64439-9, doi:10.2791/947252, JRC116234.

Description of the variables:

Energy use, Gross:
Gross energy use
English
(4.58 MB - ZIP)
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Energy use, Emission Relevant:
Emission relevant energy use
English
(4.54 MB - ZIP)
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CO2 Emissions:
CO2 emissions
English
(525.43 KB - ZIP)
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EU Exports: effects on employment and income (2018)

   
   

Employment

Income

Intra-EU

(erratum)

(erratum)

 

The JRC provides scientific evidence-based policy support to the European Commission by analysing the number of jobs supported by EU exports (by industry, skills, gender and age) and their corresponding embodied value added. To fully understand how trade flows affect employment and income, gathering comprehensive, reliable and comparable information is crucial to support evidence-based policymaking.

Guided by this objective, the JRC has continued producing a third study in three volumes:

These reports aim to be a valuable tool for policy makers.

These reports feature a series of indicators to illustrate in detail the relationship between trade and employment for the EU as a whole and for each EU Member State using the World Input-Output Database (WIOD), 2016 release, as the main data source. This information has been complemented with data on employment by age, skill and gender from other sources such as EUKLEMS. All the indicators relate to the EU exports to other EU countries and to the rest of the world so as to reflect the scope of EU trade policy making.

Most indicators are available as of 2000 but, due to data constraints, the indicators on employment split by skill, gender and age are only available from 2008 to 2014. The geographical breakdown of the data includes the 28 EU Member States, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Norway, Russia, South Korea, Switzerland, Turkey, Taiwan, the United States of America, and an aggregate “Rest of the World” region. On the basis of the number of jobs embodied in every million EUR worth of exports in 2014 and more recent data on international trade in goods and services, this report also provides projections elaborated for employment and income effects of extra-EU exports by the JRC for 2017 using a different methodology.

The information presented in this pocketbook is complemented with an electronic version with extra downloadable data and visualisations together with country fiches for the EU and its members (zip.file).

The JRC and DG TRADE have also produced a new DG TRADE Chief Economist Note (2018) based on the new figures contained in this report.

EU Exports and Employment (2012)

In a first stage, the JRC used the TIMESUT database and the EUKLEMS data on employment, to quantify the number of jobs associated to EU exports to the world (2000-2007). Disaggregated data between countries and between economic sectors were also provided as a result. The outcome of the calculations was published in a DG TRADE Chief Economist Note (2012) and in the Journal of Common Market Studies (2013).

Global Resources Use and Pollution. Edition 2012

Graphic of the world with light beams connecting different places
© Fotolia, phyZick

This report is based on the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) and presents for the very first time a series of indicators describing the evolution of the use of natural resources and the emissions of air pollutants around the world, in relation to production, consumption and trade activities. The publications include information on six environmental dimensions, namely: land, materials, water and emissions of acid substances, greenhouse gases and ozone precursors. The time frame covered is the period between 1995 and 2008, and the geographical area includes the EU-27 countries, China, India, Japan, Russia, the United States of America and the Rest of the World as an aggregated region.

Data are presented in two pocket books; the first one presents the global evolution of each indicator [8 MB], and the second shows a series of country factsheets [2MB].

 

Related Content

country_factsheets_2021.zip
English
(2.53 MB - ZIP)
Изтегляне

Chief Economist Note: EU Export and Employment (2018)

Trade and jobs in Europe: The role of mode 5 services exports (2018)

Chief Economist Note: Are EU Exports gender-blind? Some key features (2017)

Chief Economist Note: EU exports to the world: Overview of effects on employment and income (2016)

The Single Market as an Engine for Employment through External Trade (2013)

Chief Economist Note: Extra - EU Export and Employment (2012)