- JRC nr: JRC127769
- Publication date
- 26 January 2022
This article attempts to identify social investment strategies across EU countries and explain their evolution over the period 2004-18, by using cluster analysis on expenditure and coverage variables and qualitative analysis on selected policy areas to contextualize the results. It finds that strategies have diversified over time in a progressively complex way. After the financial crisis, three main so-cial investment strategies emerge in Europe. They do not overlap with canonical welfare state mod-els, nor have a clear-cut geographical connotation. The strategies are distinct because of their dif-ferent levels of overall expenditure on social investment but, over time, also by their different life-course orientations. Significant variation within the clusters, in terms of both expenditure and de-sign of social investment policies, indicates that fully-fledged strategies have not yet formed in well-defined groups of countries.
BAIOCCO Sara, ALCIDI Cinzia, CORTI Francesco, DI SALVO Mattia