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GECO - Publications


GECO has resulted in the following main publications:

  • Toon Vandyck & Kimon Keramidas & Stéphane Tchung-Ming & Matthias Weitzel & Rita Van Dingenen. (2020) Quantifying air quality co-benefits of climate policy across sectors and regions. Climatic Change. Part of a Special Issue reporting results from the "Energy Modeling Forum (EMF)-30 Study on Short-Lived Climate Forcers (SLCF) and Air Quality” edited by John Weyant, Steven J Smith, and Zbigniew Klimont.


  • Michel den Elzen, Takeshi Kuramochi, Niklas Höhne, Jasmin Cantzler, Kendall Esmeijer, Hanna Fekete, Taryn Fransen, Kimon Keramidas, Mark Roelfsema, Fu Sha, Heleen van Soest, Toon Vandyck (2019) Are the G20 economies making enough progress to meet their NDC targets? Energy Policy, Volume 126, March 2019, Pages 238-250


  • Matthias Weitzel, Toon Vandyck, Kimon Keramidas, Markus Amann, Pantelis Capros, Michel den Elzen, Stefan Frank, Stéphane Tchung-Ming, Ana Díaz Vázquez and Bert Saveyn. (2019) Model-based assessments for long-term climate strategies. Comment in Nature Climate Change, Vol. 9, May 2019, pp. 343–347


  • Matthias Weitzel, Bert Saveyn, Toon Vandyck (2018). Including bottom-up emission abatement technologies in a large-scale global economic model for policy assessments. Energy Economics, Vol. 83, pp. 254-263.



  • Toon Vandyck, Kimon Keramidas, Alban Kitous, Joseph V. Spadaro, Rita Van Dingenen, Mike Holland & Bert Saveyn (2018) Air quality co-benefits for human health and agriculture counterbalance costs to meet Paris Agreement pledges. Nature Communications volume 9, Article number: 4939 (2018)


  • Vandyck, T., Keramidas, K., Saveyn, B., Kitous, A., & Vrontisi, Z. (2016). A global stocktake of the Paris pledges: Implications for energy systems and economy. Global Environmental Change, 41, 46-63.



Policy documents

GECO has been used in the following European Commission policy documents:



GECO and related work has been presented at a number of venues over the years, such as UNFCCC COPs, international conferences (e.g. IAMC, GTAP, IEW), seminars and workshops. 


Related content

Others have used GECO in the following works:


  • Philippidis, G., Ferrer Pérez, H., Gracia de Rentería, P., M'Barek, R. Sanjuán López, A. I. (2021) Eating your greens: a global sustainability assessment. Resources, Conservation & Recycling 168 (2021) 105460




  • Philippidis, G., Shutes, L., M'Barek, R., Ronzona, T., Tabeau, A., van Meij, H. (2020) Snakes and ladders: World development pathways’ synergies and trade-offs through the lens of the Sustainable Development Goals. Journal of Cleaner Production 267 (2020) 122147





  • Hidalgo Gonzalez, Ignacio; Medarac, Hrvoje; Pappis, Ioannis; González Sánchez, Rocio; Kougias, Ioannis; Sridharan, Vignesh; Usher, William; Howells, Mark (2019): Energy projections for African countries by 2065. European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC) [Dataset] PID: