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The "Global Energy and Climate Outlook" is an annual publication of the JRC, produced in collaboration with DG CLIMA.

Based on quantified assessment by the JRC's internal energy-economics teams, GECO provides a global picture of energy markets as they transform over the next decades, under the simultaneous interactions of economic development, technological innovation and climate policies.

GECO brings together decades-long expertise in the fields of energy production, energy trade, technological development and energy system transformation, GHG emissions mitigation strategies, economic development and data analysis.

The analysis produced benefits from quality knowledge in current developments of the energy markets, and makes use of up-to-date underlying information and of continuously improved modelling tools.

The analysis uses several JRC models in a multidimensional framework where economic welfare is maximised while tackling climate change: the world energy system model POLES-JRC is used for energy sector and greenhouse gases emissions forecasting, and the CGE model JRC-GEM-E3 is used for assessing the economic impacts of the scenarios developed.

The models are developed internally at JRC, and benefit from interactions with several teams of researchers.

Related Content

Publication: GHG and energy balances (Supplementary material to: GECO 2021)

JRC Policy Brief: Analysis of scenarios integrating the INDCs

Communication by the European Commission: "The Paris Protocol - a blueprint for tackling global climate change beyond 2020"

Leaflet: Science for Climate Action