Research and innovation (R&I) policy is central to the 'Made in China 2025' strategy.
China's spending in R&I as a proportion of GDP is higher than in the EU28.
Science and technology output from China in terms of the number of publications and patents has dramatically improved.
China's share of highly cited publications is higher than the world average and rapidly approaching the US and EU in absolute figures.
The US benefits more from the rise of Chinese science than the EU. The US hosts almost double the number of overseas Chinese researchers, and it makes more than three times as many international co-publications with China than the EU in 2017.