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Research and innovation (R&I) policy is central to the 'Made in China 2025' strategy.

China's spending in R&I as a proportion of GDP is higher than in the EU28.

Graphic: Gross expenditure on R&D intensity in the US, EU and China
Gross expenditure on R&D intensity in the US, EU and China
© OECD

Science and technology output from China in terms of the number of publications and patents has dramatically improved.

China's share of highly cited publications is higher than the world average and rapidly approaching the US and EU in absolute figures.

The US benefits more from the rise of Chinese science than the EU. The US hosts almost double the number of overseas Chinese researchers, and it makes more than three times as many international co-publications with China than the EU in 2017.

Graphic; Top 10 % highly cited publications - US, EU and China world shares
Top 10 % highly cited publications - US, EU and China world shares
© Elsevier Scopus data

The report

China – Challenges and Prospects of an Industrial and Innovation Powerhouse

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Report: China – Challenges and Prospects of an Industrial and Innovation Powerhouse

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