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Beyond averages - fairness in an economy that works for people

The JRC published the second fairness report in 2019.


Before the start of the coronavirus pandemic, slightly more than half of EU citizens considered their lives to be fair.

Three out of five Europeans agreed that they enjoyed equal opportunities in life.

Perceptions of fairness also differ markedly across countries and socio-demographic groups.

How people feel about fairness matters. It might influence their decisions and their happiness.

The fairness report addresses some of the most pertinent fairness dimensions in relation to a fair, inclusive and social European Union.

Key findings

Download the report

Beyond averages - fairness in an economy that works for people

The report offers:

  • a snapshot of the state of fairness in Europe before the COVID-19 outbreak.
  • a benchmark against which some of the consequences of the current crisis can be evaluated.

The fairness report and COVID-19 pandemic

The present report, “Beyond averages – Fairness in an economy that works for people”, was written before the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic is still unfolding and many uncertainties remain. A growing number of evidence suggests that the health and economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are being borne disproportionally by less well-off people.

The pandemic reinforces the need to address the challenges underlying widening socio-economic inequalities.

Related content

"Working for social fairness and prosperity" is a political priority of the European Commission (Priorities 2019-2024: An economy that works for people).


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Research project on fairness